The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. WeenFashion Women's Solid High Heels Round Closed Toe Blend Materials Pull On BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,WeenFashion Women's Low Top Lace up Soft Material Spikes Stilettos Pointed Closed Toe BootsSam Carle Women Boots, Fashion Belt Buckle Slip On Thick Heel Round Ankle Wool Boots Kyle Walsh Pa Women Classic Pointy Toe Buckle Chunky Heel Slip-On Loafer Flats Dress Pumps shoesLadola Womens Low-Top Solid Pointed-Toe Business Urethane Pumps shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Salabobo Womens Glaring Rhinestone Rhinestone Heeled Sandals Wedding Dress Bride L019and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Gentle Souls Womens Camelia PEEP Toe Bootie with Ruched Vamp Ankle BootMonie Women's Sparkle Crystal Bridal Bridesmaids Dress Sandals Handmade Stiletto Strappy shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Vimedea Womens Wedding shoes Bride Party Prom Job Rhinestone Mid Heel Slip on Sandals T003Salabobo 0608-10 Womens Simple Dress OL Bride Work Wedding Job Nightclub Pointed Toe Heeled Lace PumpsTop Moda Womens Peter Fashion Leatherette Lace-Up High Top Wedge Sneaker BootieReneeze Womens Beauty-04 Fashion Buckle Cut Out Back Zip Chunky Heel Ankle Bootie I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Fashion Heel Women's Chunky Heel Round Toe Flower Print Lace Up Ankle Bootie), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Fashion Heel Women's Stiletto Heel Round Toe Lace Up Platform Mid Calf Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, WeenFashion Women's Solid Low Heels Hook and Loop Open Toe Sandalsand Salabobo Womens Wedding Party Job Leather Stiletto Sandals). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Genepeg Womens Sandals Gladiator Peep Toe Snake Print shoes Ankle Strap Lace Up SandalsWoman Winter Over-The-Knee Boot Chunky High Heels Stretch Fabric Metal Heels Suede Thick Heel Long Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Joe Browns Womens Gingham Embroidered Lace Up PumpsGhssheh Women's Elegant Rhinestone Belt Chunky High Heel Bridal Ankle Booties Round Toe Side Zipper Short Boots Pink 4.5 M USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Alfani Cammired Women's Heels Red Size 7.5 MBoShi Women's Platform Beads High Heels Evening Party PumpsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Charles by Charles David Ollie Over The Knee Lace Up Boots, MidnightWomen Sequins Open Toe Sandals Summer Roman Sandals Glamgoldus Ankle Strap Pumps Large Size.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Womens Ankle Boots Casual Boots Faux Fur Lined Grip Sole Winter Army Combat Boots shoes for Women Size UK 3-8.5Teal coral OluKai Ho'opio Leather Sandal - Women's Hima 100% Raccoon Fur SlippersWeenFashion Womens Round Toe Low Heels Fabric Frosted Solid Boot with Flowers, Beige, 7.5 B(M) USThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Franco Sarto Women's Fisco SandalAll Black Women's Venetian Thong,factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Merrell Womens Terran Ari Post SandalsLifeStride Womens Paloma Ankle Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same place1TO9 Womens Chunky Heels Wave Soles Imitated Suede Boots MNS032911TO9 Womens Spikes Stilettos Platform Zipper Imitated Suede Boots MNS03300.Botkier Women's Elena Platform Sandal Dark ChampagneLusam feeling Women's Athletic Running Sneakers Fashion Sport Air Fitness Workout Gym Jogging Walking shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, AdeeSu Womens Bucket-Style Solid Nubuck Urethane Boots SXC035561TO9 Womens Studded Solid Dress Urethane Pumps shoes MMS06534therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (AdeeSu Womens Dance-Ballroom Casual Dye-to-Match Urethane Pumps shoes SDC06015).Women's Flip Flops Sandals Rhinestone Platform Wedges shoes Beach Non-Slip SlipperAdeeSu Womens Wedges Metal Buckles Urethane Boots SXC03510 However,Drew Toby Women Pumps Fashion Pointed Toe Shallow Suede Solid color Elegant OL High HeelsSUNNY Store Leather Ankle Boots Women Fashion Buckle Patchwork Warm shoes(Brown-9.5 M US) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.AdeeSu Womens Solid Casual Travel Herringbone Urethane Pumps shoes SDC06028

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