The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Pleaser Women's Bettie-07 Ankle-Strap SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nature Breeze FF66 Women Leatherette Sweater Chunky Heel Bootie - TanKenneth Cole New York Womens Barletta Stud Strappy Sandal Heeled Sandal Steve Madden Women's EXCEL Fashion Sneaker WhiteLadola Womens Winkle Pinker Stiletto Metal Ornament Imitated Leather Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Womens Sandals Sexy shoes Ankle Buckle Strap Elegant Party High Heel Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Aerosoles Womens Mid Size Open Toe Casual Strappy Sandals, Black, Size 5.5Carlos by Carlo Santana Women's Berkeley Ankle BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women Summer Gladiator Cross Strap Sandals Leather Strap Flat SandalsButterfly Twists Womens Grace Ballet FlatG by Guess Womens Odean Leather Low Top Lace UpSperry Womens Seaport Fina Mule I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Vionic Women's Fresh Riley Lace Up Sneakers - Ladies Athletic shoes with Concealed Orthotic Support), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Skechers Street goldie Collegiate Cruizers Womens Sneakers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Jellypop Kristy Womens Heeled Sandalsand York Zhu Women Pumps, Elegant Mixed color Shallow Med Heel Round Toe Wedding shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Refresh Women Faux Suede Almond Toe Wraparound Tasseled Chunky Heel Bootie FH49Women Sexy Ankle Boots Fashion Pointed Toe Snake Print Booties Square Heel Side Zipper Chelsea Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). LVYING Fashion Women's Thick Chunky Heel T-Straps Party shoes Sexy Cut Outs Buckle Straps Peep Toe Summer SandalsLuuvy-shop sandal Women Flat Sandals Woven Wedge Sandals Ladies Beach Summer Slingback Sandals Flipflops shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Katy Perry Womens The Kelsi Heeled SandalBareTraps Women's Cella Slide SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Toffeln Safety Lite 03155 Steel Toe-Cap Antistatic Safety ClogsEllie shoes E-511-Ferocious, 5 Heel Thigh High Stretch Boot..

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).12Cm Heels Pumps Sexy Black Beige Wedding shoes Stiletto B-0043Hoxekle Fashion Height Increasing Women Casual shoes Platform Sneakers Breathable PU Faux Leather Wedge Flat shoes Women's Booties Artificial PU Thick with high Heel Pointed Martin Boots Belt Buckle Ankle Boots Europe and The NewLimelight Womens Dylan Low Heel Chelsea Ankle Boot shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Webb Perkin Women Slip On Short Plush Skinny Stretch Boots Classic Sexy Boots Lady Winter Fashion Over The Knee High BootsKangaROOS Womens K Mid Plateau Trainer White Size UK 5 EU 38factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Hoxekle Woman Over The Knee High Boots Zip Lace Up Sexy Female Autumn Winter Warm Elastic Flat Antislip Long BootsFashion Waterproof Snow Boots Women's Mid Calf Boots Flat Winter Platform Fur shoes Woman There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeThe North Face Women's Ballard Pull On Mid-Calf Leather BootSalabobo Womens Waterproof Platform Peacock Heeled Sandals Rhinestone Stilettos L048.T-JULY Women New Lace Up Mesh Wedges Mixed colors Platform Casual shoesT-JULY Women Ladies Wedge Sandals Star Bee Embroidery Slippers Platform Summer Beach Slide Sandals for Students At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Winter Boots Big Size Over The Knee Ladies Sexy High Heels Long Fashion shoes Round Toe Platform BootExing Women's shoes Leather Summer Comfort Lace-up Sandals Rough Heel Peep Toe Pink Beige White Black Sandalstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Charmarm Boy Sport Football bluee Super Womens Cute Low Top Canvas Sneakers shoes).Charmarm Skulls And pinks Women Classic Low Top Canvas Running shoesCharmarm Pineapples And Tropical Leaves Background Women Cozy Low Top Canvas Sneakers shoes However,Spring Step Womens Asimona Flat SandalCYBLING Women's Classic Brogue Oxford shoes Lace up Wingtip Chunky High Heel Platform Ankle Booties I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Charmarm Black White Red Checkerboard Womens Breathable Low Top Canvas Plimsolls

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