The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Hurley Men's Flex 2.0 SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nike Men's Huarache V Lax Cleated shoesVANS shoes - SK8-HI Reissue Zip - Premium Leather Duffel Bag Skechers Men's Flex Advantage 2.0 Multisport Outdoor shoesNike Men's 831975-013 Football Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, New Balance Men's shoes, Colour Green, Brand, Model Men's shoes U320 BG Greenand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. New Balance Fresh Foam Zante V3, Women's Running shoesSperry Top-Sider Men's Gamefish 3-Eye Boat shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Country Sicherheits-Stiefel S5 EN 345 black 44Shenduo Men's Slip on Moccasins Boat Loafer Flats Driving Slippers Walking shoes D7152Dune Men's Snowdon Hi-Top TrainersAdidas Lite Racer, Men’s Low-Top Sneakers I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. RcnryMen's casual canvas shoes, low tide shoes.), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Himalayan 5106, Men’s SRC Safety shoes, Black (Black 002), 3 (36 EU)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, U.S.POLO ASSN. Men’s Tucker Trainersand ZHANGJIA Summer Toe Sandals Sandals, Beach shoes, Wear Resistant, Anti Slip, Flip Flops, Cool Slippers,43,Dark Brown). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Hi-Tec Men's New 2018 Skamania MID Waterproof Hiking BootCrocs Men's Swiftwater Mesh Moc Slip-On Loaferduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Puma Men's Clyde Velour Ice Ankle-High Velvet Fashion SneakerDC Men's Wes Kremer 2 S TrainersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? PUMA Men's Easy Rider Lux Fashion Sneakers Black Whisper WhitePuma IGNITE SPEED Men's Running shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Haflinger Unisex Adults’ Rio MulesASDFGH Men'S Running shoes, Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Sports shoes Flying Woven Knit Socks Men'S And Women'S Elastic High-Top Casual shoes,B,43.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Hhgold 2018 Men PU Leather shoes Classic Lace up Loafers Low Top Lined Formal Business Oxfords (color Coffee, Size 38 EU) (color Brown, Size 47 EU)Hhgold Autumn Increased 6cm Casual shoes, Men's Leather Single shoes Korean Version Of The Leather shoes Tide (color Grey, Size 39) Vans Unisex-Adult Sk8-hi Slim TrainerBugatti Men's 342518626900 Slip On TrainersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Nike Flex 2015 Run (Gs), Unisex Kids' Multisport Indoor shoesGilbert Sidestep V1 Low Cut MSX Rugby Boots - White REDfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Exton 5413 Classic shoes ManEllesse Monaco Tan EL82940707, Trainers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCofra 25600-000.W47 Size 47 S3 SRC Paride Bis Safety shoes - Black - EN safety certifiedClarks Men's Tunsil Plain Brogues.DuoShengZhTG Men's Classic Matte PU Leather shoes Formal Business shoes Upper Breathable Lace Up Lined OxfordsSkechers Men's Relven- Hemson Trainers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, GLSHI Men British Derby Increased Casual Lace Up Pointed Stylist shoes Fashion Wedding shoesAdidas Men’s Cf Revival Mid Fitness shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Regatta Hard Wear Defence S1P Safety Trainers).Reebok Men's Royal Ec Ride Running shoesSHANGWU Men's Breathable Wild Sports Wind shoes Hip-hop Tide shoes Korean Leather Men's Casual shoes However,Nike FCB Sleeveless Hood TopPUMA 365 IGNITE NETFIT Men's Court Training shoes (104473) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.LEIF NELSON Men's LN155 Boots

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