The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. POTKCone Women's Lightweight Running shoes Cool Style Sneakers Soft Sole Quick Dry Workout Lace UpThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Edv0d2v266 Fashion Women Martin Boots Ankle Boots Thick Heel Lady BootsOnewus Women Fashion Knee High Lace Boots AdeeSu Womens Huarache Cold Lining Non-Marking Urethane Sandals SLC03751HIPPOSEUS Women's Boost Dance Sneaker Jazz Dance Sneaker Modern Jazz Soft Canvas Mesh Sport Sneaker,Model T01generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Dahanyi Stylish Warm Faux Fur Waterproof Snow Boots Women Winter Fashion Ankle Boots Big Size Black Brown Beige colorand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Kaloosh Women's Fashion Platform Prom Stiletto High Heels Mules SandalsTirahse Comfortable Women's Pu Solid Buckle Round Closed Toe High Heels Pumps-shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Duduxiaomaibu Mid Kitten Heels Stiletto Pumps Pointed Toe Slingback Dress Sandals Low Heels Ankle Strap Wedding Party PumpsHigh-Heeled Ankle Boots Female Winter Thick with Rhinestones Furry Martin BootsHEMAY Women's Winter Hunting Combat Boots High-Top Leather shoesCrosslite Womens Walking shoes - Lightweight & Breathable & Casual & Comfortable - Made from Knitted Textile Fabric - Perfect for Spring Summer Fall Winter I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Doginthehole Training Sport shoes for Women Breathable Mesh Roshe Run Sneaker in Wide), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Doginthehole Bull Terrier Print Women Sneakers Lace up Mesh Sport Running shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Doginthehole Galaxy Wolf Print Women's Athletic Sneakers Anti-Slip Running shoesand ZHENZHONG Women's Hiking Mountain Walking Boots Sport Outdoor shoes Footwear). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, MEIZOKEN Womens Handmade Flowers Platform Sandals Casual Summer Elastic Ankle Strap Wedge SandalsKanf saysfg Green Tropical Pineapple Fashion Running Sneakers for Women Lightweight Breathabl Sport Walking shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). ADIDII Womens Printed Non-Slip Slippers Slide flip Flop Sandals La_Bron_Yellow_Logo_Basketball Summer IndoorsBellini Flora Pa Women's Slip OnLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AIYOUMEI Women's Pointed Toe Slip on High Heels Stiletto Pumps shoesAIYOUMEI Women's Fashion Block Heel Lace-up Bootie Round Toe Autumn Winter Casual Ankle BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Bokun Women Casual Flats shoes Platform Women Cozy Lace Up Breathable shoesKyle Walsh Pa Women Flats shoes Ladies Fashion Casual Soft Working Driving Moccasins Footwear.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).MUK LUKS Women's Patti Cable Cuff BootYKXIAOYU Handbags for Women European and American Fashion New Women's Bag Retro Oil Leather Bag New Simple PU Fabric Brown CarziCuzin Women Peep Toe Thin High Heel Summer Ankle Booties Party SandalsFashion Thirsty Womens Metallic Hexagon Facet Heel Ankle Boots Chelsea Winter Party SizeThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: DolphinGirl Women Open Toe Heeled Platform Sandal Ankle Strap Prom Wedding Party Dress Pump SM00224colorfulworldstore Fashion M Font Tiger Satin (Pink red Purple) of Ladies Ballroom Latin Dance shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.CUTEHEELS Sandals with Bling Chunky Heel and 6-colors Party shoes with Large BlackLLBubble Women Comfort Flat Satin Wedding Bridal shoes Pointed Toe Ankle Buckle Strap Formal Party Dress Pumps 5047-7 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCici shoes Fashion Women's Flat Athletic Lace-Up High-top Military Ankle Casual High Top Canvas Ladies shoesSmart.A Women's Slip on Chunky Heel Ankle Boot.Flip Flops for Women Casual Wedge High Chunky Platform shoes Outdoor SlippersOpr7 Moon Star Cloud Running shoes Lightweight for Women Sneaker Sport Casual At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Eleganceoo Women Men Water Socks Durable Aqua Fins Barefoot shoes Beach Pool Swim Surf Yoga ExerciseHUGS IDEA Animals Pattern Fashion Women's Lightweight Running Sneakerstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Northside Womens Niagara Water shoes).LUSTHAVE Fur Slide On Slip On Flip Flop High Fashion Slippers Criss CrossOLIVIA K Women's Slip On Ballet Flats Jelly Mesh Flat Sandals However,ANLUKE Women Summer Clog Breathable Slippers Loafer Garden shoes Beach Slip-onWomen's High-quplity Elastic Material Platform Boots Knee Boots with Height Fround toeion Shose I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Adidas Decade Low ST Women Originals Leisure Trainers White Black Purple

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