The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nike Men's Legend React Running shoes, Indigo Storm BlackThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Adidas Originals EQT Support ADV Men's shoes Black b37345 (13 D(M) US)Adidas Equipment Support ADV Mens Mens Cq0882 Karen Scott Womens Nelly Closed Toe Wedge Pumps, Black, Size 5.0Merrell Mens Parkway Moc Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Jessica Simpson Women's Cerrina Ankle Boot Brownand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Ron White Women's Bonita PumpAdidas Outdoor Mens Terrex AX2R CP K Hiking shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Flexus Women's Safa Leather Slingback SandalL'Artiste by Spring Step Womens RimaFly Soft Milford Mens Casual Buckle Thong Strap Platform Footbed Slides Sandals Slip On SandlesOlivia and Jaymes Women's Pointed Toe Mid Calf Ankle shoes Boots Low Kitten Heel Short Booties I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Mens 100% Wool Tweed Shooting Baseball Cap with Fold Down Ear Flaps - Dark Brown - Extra Large), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. 5 Heel Two Tone Closed Toe Oxford. by Ellie(BLKW,7)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Ewing Hi 33 Black Grey Redand YDN Women Comfy Mid Heel Slingback Pumps Peep Toe Sandals Summer Slip on Causal shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Marc Fisher Women's Tuscany2 PumpBrinley Co Women's Luna Pumpduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). T.U.K. Women's A8570l Ballet FlatARA 41859.06 Size 6.5 US BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Womens Elegant Women's Court shoes Square Toe Side Buckle Shallow Mouth Breathable Casual Comfort Convenient Nude shoes with High 3-5 cmMarc Fisher Manette Women's flats & oxfords, Pewter Multi, Size 6.5And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Jordan Nike Men's Eclipse Gym Red Wolf Grey Running shoes 8.5 Men USVince Camuto Women's Shada Bootie.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Women Martin Boots Leather high Heel Pointed Thick with Short Boots Side Zipper Fake Hollow Flowers Retro Style Waterproof Black New Leather BootsDC shoes Men's Lynx OG Low Top Sneaker shoes White bluee WILSON Men's Rush Pro 2.0 Tennis shoesFila Mens Spoiler Small Logos Leather Padded Insole Basketball shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Wedopus MW835 Women Pumps Closed Toe Heels Rhinestone Prom Spool Heels Satin Wedding Party shoesMen Oxford Lace-Up Flats shoes 2017 New Single shoes Breathable Board shoes Trend shoes Head Soft Leather shoes Daily Casual shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Men's Business Leather shoes Fall Winter New Comfortable shoes Outdoor Tourism shoes Wear-Resistant Non Slip Lace-Up shoes,B,38Vespa Unisex Adults' Corsa Trainers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWomen's Martin Boots Leather Low Heel Thick with Ankle Boots Crystal with Leather Buckle with Fashion Boots Autumn and Winter NewWomen's Booties, Leather Square Head Thick Heel Side Zipper Mid Heel Knight Boots Ladies Wear- Resistant Non-Slip Fashion Martin Boots (color Black, Size 34).ROCKPORT First St. Moto BootNine Seven Suede Leather Women's Square Toe Chunky Heel Well Designed Handmade Button Ankle Booties At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Nine Seven Suede Leather Women's Round Toe Chunky Heel Back Zipper Handmade Ladies Ankle Booties NewGenuine Leather 9 cm 14 cm High Heel Sandals Women Sexy shoes Fashion shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (AnMengXinLing Stiletto Gladiator Sandals Ankle Strap Women Open Toe Sexy Heeled Dress Party Pumps Big Size 13 Nude).Ruby Shoo Women's Karolina Navy Block Heel Ankle BootNine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Square Cap-Toe Ankle Booties - Handmade Chunky Low Heel Walking Dress Boots However,Fashion Pointed Sandals Baotou Lazy shoes Lightweight Ladies shoes Wild Flat shoes (color Beige, Size 37)OTBT Women's Highstreet Biker Boot Coffeebean Leather I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Base London Mens Lytham Excel Tan Waxy Size UK 15 EU 50

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