The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. T-JULY Women's Fashion shoes Ankle Boots Genuine Leather Lace Up Flats Lady Round Toe Breathable Casual Slip on shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,T-JULY Fashion Gladiator Sparkle Glitter Heels Hollow Out Sandals for Women Open Toe Chunky Heeled Dress Pumps shoesT-JULY Womens Sparkle Glitter Sequins Close Toe Ankle Strap Sandals with Buckle Stilettos Heel Dressy Pumps shoes Dyeables Womens Felicity Heeled SandalSkechers Women's Keepsakes Meadow Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, T-JULY Women's Modern Penny Loafer shoes Fashion Casual Retro Slip-On Suede Moccasinand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. END GAME Women Sandals Sexy high Heels Platform shoes Woman Casual Women shoesWomen's shoesTulle Summer Fall Club shoes Heels Stiletto Heel Sexy Rivets shoes for Wedding Party & EveningWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,T-JULY Women's Comfortable Oxfords shoes - Modern Lace-up Low Wedge Round Toe Casual shoesT-JULY Women's Fashion Oxfords shoes - Comfy Perforated Lace-up Low Heel Retro Round Toe shoesPUMA Womens Riaze Prowl Wn SneakerNaughty Monkey Women's Stolen Night Slouch Boot I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. WestCoast Women's Mid Calf Cowboy Boots Distressed Slouchy O-Ring Studded Pull on Block Heel Riding Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Big Size 33-45 New Hot British Style Handmade Genuine Leather shoes College Oxford shoes for Women), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Gabor 81.742 Antique pink Womens Ankle Strap Size 9Mand Jim Hugh Mid Calf Women Short Boots High Heel Boots Zipper Rivets Classic Mature Woman shoes Ladies shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, CRUZ Boots Womens Leather BrownMET RXL Lady,Summer,Rivet,Flat Sandals Flat Heel,A-line Slipperduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Amalfi By Rangoni Womens Olmar Closed Toe LoafersWomen's Sandals, Retro Square Square Sandals, European and American Casual shoes, Heels and Heels.Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Sam Carle Women Boots, Winter Fashion Ruffle Thick Heel Pointed Toe Over The Knee BootsCooga Nurse Design Women's Comfortable Nursing shoes Slip Resistant Work shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Twinkle UU Sandals Square High Heel Sandals Sweet Bow Platform Women shoes Summer Ankle Strap shoesEllie shoes Womens 414-flore Platform Pump.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Soda Women's Albert Faux Suede Cowboy Pull-Tab Stacked Heels Ankle Booties,Black,9HUAN Women's shoes Suede Spring Summer Comfort Buckle Sandals Open Toe Rhinestone for Wedding Party & Evening CYBLING Women's Buckle Slip-On Loafers Square Toe Fur Lined Oxford Dress shoesCYBLING Fashion Outdoor Women's Athletic Exercise Walking shoes Sports Running Wedge SneakersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Tamaris - Caterina - 112211020201Awesome-experience Women Round Tow Slip On Thick Heel Concise Daily Footwearsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Autumn Women's Round Toe Lace-up Ankle Boots Ladies Leather Combat Booties Fashion Martens BootsAerosoles Womens Fruit Cake Wedge Sandal There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGaastra Women's Pilar Sue PRF W TrainersTwin Tigers Lug 11 Womens Military Lace up Combat Boot,Lug-11v8.0 Premium Brown 6.WeiPoot Women's Frosted Solid Round-Toe Boots with Fur-OrnamentWomen's Sneakers,Comfort Damping Trainers shoes,Light Breathable Walking Gym shoes Athletic Sneakers,Spring Summer Autumn Fall Winter Camping Walking Park (color Black, Size 36) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Aravon Women's Dolly Flat,Black,6.5 2E USGhssheh Women's Buckle Strap Round Toe Low Heel Slouch Side Zipper Over The Knee Boots Black 5 M UStherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (August Jim Women's Platform Flats Loafers shoes Slip-on Comfort Casual Wedge Sandals).Wallhewb Women Fashion Platform Sneakers Female Wedges Basket Chunky Footwear Wear Resistant Fashionable Soft Elegant Joker Beautiful Baifen 8.5 M US Casual shoesWomens High-Heeled Pumps shoes Women Pumps High Heels shoes Pointed Toe PVC Transparent Royal bluee Dress shoes Woman Spring Autumn Party shoes Ladies Plus Size However,WeenFashion Women's Hook-and-Loop Open Toe High-Heels Cow Leather Solid SandalsKlogs USA Women's Forest Mule I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.WANGZHAO Handbag, Satchel Bag, Fashion and Simplicity.

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