The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. shoes Fashion Pumps for Women High Stiletto Heels Classic Dress shoes for Ladies Pointed, Classic Slip On Dress Pumps Pointed, Classic Slip On Dress Pumps ComfortableThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,K-Swiss Women's X Lite ST CMF Training shoesResident-Evil-2-LOGO- Women Casual shoes Sneakers Slip-On Classic Spring Original WeiPoot Women's Open Toe No Heel Solid Buckle Flats-SandalsCasual Western Ankle Bootie Comfortable Closed Toe shoes Low Heel Slip on Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Elsa Wilcox Women Open Toe Anti-Slip Glitter Wedding shoes Womens Fashion Rhinestone Block Heel Wedges Platform Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Sperry Top-Sider Women's Adriatic Thong Skip Lace Leather SandalEdv0d2v266 Women Fashion Vintage Low Chunky Heel Ankle Leather Booties Short Riding BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Kyle Walsh Pa Women Lace-up Flats Soft Comfortable Driving Pregnant shoesAIRAVATA Casual Walking shoes Men and Women Slip on Mesh Lightweight Breathable SneakersDREAM PAIRS Women's Fashion Outdoor Athletic SandalsPUMA Womens Dare Ac Sneaker I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. ZHZNVX Women's PU Spring &Fall Sandals Stiletto Heel Pointed Toe Black Almond), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Thick with Shallow colorblock Pointed Toe Pumps Dress High Heels Single shoes k11), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, AmoonyFashion Women's Pull-On High Heels Pu Solid Round Closed Toe Pumps-shoesand Pleaser Women's Fascinate-654Sl BS PCH Platform Sandal,Black Suede Pewter). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, TG By KSC Womens Mid Calf Boots Combat Motorcycle Riding Side Zipper ClosureASO-SLING Women Fashion Sneakers Lightweight Athletic Walking shoes Casual Platform Lace-up Running Sneakersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Frestree Fashion shoes for Girls Basketball shoesFrestree Stylish Sneakers for Women Basketball shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? An Meng Xin Ling Glitter Women's Ankle Strap Stiletto Pumps Pointed Toe Dress D'Orsay High Heel Summer Wedding shoesKyle Walsh Pa Women Ballet Flats shoes Square Toe Bow-Knot Ladies Elegant Office FootwearAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Pleaser Women's Deluxe-654RS PPS Slingback SandalMeimeioo Women's Glitter Sequins Low Chunky Heels Lace Up Martin Ankle Boot Short Booties.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Waterproof Boots Women Platform Rocker Sole High Top Lace Up Fur Lined Boots (color Red, Size CA 9)Maxstar C03 50 Synthetic Cotton Platform Slip on Sneakers Nine West Womens Schaffer Suede Dress SandalStep n Style Women Khussa shoes Punjabi Jutti Mojari Maharani Look Flat Ballet shoes blueeThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: WeiPoot Women Peep Toe High Heel PU Frosted Solid Sandals with Rhinestones, bluee, 9.5 B(M) USINC International Concepts Womens Fawne Leather Closed Toe Over Knee Fashionfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Awesome-experience New Thin Sexy Fashion Metal High Heels Mirror Patent Leather Pointed Women Single shoesSuperga Womens 2750 Tartanplw Sneaker There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKyle Walsh Pa Women Embroidered Ankle Booties Hidden Wedge Ladies Soft Comfortable Autumn Winter BootsSlippers for Women Female Mules Summer Pointd Toe Low Square Heels Sequins Bowknot Ladies Sandals.Alfani Womens Jeules Calf Hair Leopard Print Dress HeelsAN Womens Chunky Heels Metal Buckles Imitated Suede Boots DKU02062 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Aqua Sneakers for Women Rubber Sole Sport shoes Female Breathable Outdoor Sandals Anti-Slippery Ladies Water SneakersHILIB Women's Cute Lolita Boots Cosplay Brogue Wedge Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Giles Jones Flat Flip-Flop Sandals for Women,Sweet Bohemia Beaded Tassel Ring Toe Beach Slipper shoes).BalaMasa Womens Sandals High-Heel Huarache Urethane Sandals ASL04808BalaMasa Womens Sandals Closed-Toe High-Heel Water_Resistant Light-Weight Nubuck Urethane Sandals ASL04566 However,Clorts Women's Hiking Boots Waterproof Lightweight Hiker Leather Hiking shoes Outdoor Backpacking Trekking TrailT-JULY Fashion Casual Genuine Leather shoes Woman White Loafers Flat Platform shoes Women Non-Slip Loafers Tenis shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Unm Women's Glitter Sequined Dressy Pointed Toe Buckled High Stiletto Heel D'Orsay Pumps shoes with Ankle Strap

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